A growing body of scientific research indicates that astaxanthin has the ability to provide exceptionally powerful antioxidant protection to cells and has functional effects on muscle and nerve physiology. Comprehensive studies find astaxanthin to be ten times more effective than beta-carotene and many times more effective than vitamin E. Astaxanthin is a polyunsaturated free radical quencher and part of a series of compounds including betacarotene included in the family of carotenoid antioxidants. These compounds add color to vegetables (red,orange,yellow) in which they occur naturally. This specific carotenoid also gives sea foods like salmon and shrimp their red coloration. Astaxanthin nutrients are the most potent antioxidants in all of nature, and have been proven to work longer than other antioxidants in protecting against photosensitized oxidation. It has been shown that dietary astaxanthin exerts anti-tumor activity through the enhancement of immune response.